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Common name: Horaiclavidae is one of several families in the Conoidea often referred to as turrid shells

Key morphological features: The Horaiclavidae are small gastropods (~5-25mm) with medium to high-spired, claviform shells. The siphonal canal is truncated in this family relative to other turrids. Most species have prominent axial sculpture, but weak or absent spiral ornament, and the shell exterior is glossy in many species. The anal sinus is moderate or weak. Protoconch in most species is paucispiral, but may be multispiral (up to 3.5 whorls). Source: Bouchet et al. (2011)

Geological range: Eocene to Recent (iDigBio).

Geographic distribution: A distributional map for modern Horaiclavidae may be accessed from OBIS. A distributional map for ancient Horaiclavidae may be accessed from iDigBio.

Diversity: There are 175 recognized living species of Horaiclavidae and 28 genera (WoRMS database, unvetted). The Horaiclavidae are not represented in the Paleobiology Database, probably because this family was described relatively recently as part of the updated genus-level classification of superfamily Conoidea by Bouchet et al. (2011). A potentially more accurate representation of this gastropod family’s fossil record can be found on iDigBio.

Paleoecology: Little has been documented about Horaiclavidae ecology, but like all members of the superfamily Conoidea, they are predatory marine gastropods. As with the famous genus Conus, many turrids use potent venoms to subdue their prey and are of interest in pharmacological research. They are found in shallow subtidal to deep water habitats at tropical to temperate latitudes worldwide. Sources: Kantor and Puillandre (2012); Puillandre et al. (2011); OBIS

Phylogenetic status: Monophyletic. The molecular phylogenetic analysis of Puillandre et al. (2011) supports the monophyly of Family Horaiclavidae.

Genera of Horaiclavidae present in the Neogene of the Southeastern United States